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Target Levels

 

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Moisture %

Legume-Mixed Legume Silage

Grass

Silage

<70%

Corn

Silage

60-65%

HM

Corn

25-30%

 65%  50-65% <50%

pH

4.0-4.3 4.3-4.7 4.7-5.0 4.3 - 4.7 3.8 - 4.2 4.0 - 4.5

Lactic Acid

6.0 - 8.0 4.0 - 6.0 2.0 - 4.0 6.0 - 10.0 5.0 - 10.0 1.0 - 2.0

Acetic Acid*

1.0 - 3.0 0.5 - 2.5 0.5 - 2.0 1.0 - 3.0 1.0 - 3.0 <0.5

Propionic Acid

<0.5 <0.25 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1

Butyric Acid

<0.5 <0.25 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1

Iso-Butryic Acid

<0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1

Ethanol

<1.0 <1.0 <0.5 <1.0 <3.0 <2.0

Methanol

<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5

2-Butanol

<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5

1-Propanol

0.5 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.5 0.5 - 1.5

1,2-Propanediol**

0 - 3.0 0 - 3.0 0 - 3.0 0 - 3.0 0 - 3.0 0 - 3.0

Ammonia-CP (% of CP)

<15.0 <12.0 <10.0 <12.0 <8.0 <10.0

Lactic: Acetic ratio

2+ 2.5+ 2.5+ 2+ 3+ 3+

Lactic (% of total acids)

60+ 70+ 70+ 60+ 70+ 70+

Source:

1) Limin Kung Jr., University of Delaware – personal communication
2) Richard E. Muck, U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI – personal communication

Note: Target levels represent naturally fermented silages or silages treated with fermentation aids such as microbial inoculants and/or enzymes.

*Forages inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri products may result in higher than normal concentrations of acetic acid.  Research shows the increased levels do not result in poor fermentations or negative effects on animal intake.

** 1,2- Propanediol is typically <0.25%  but can be as high as 3.0% in silages inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri.

For more information call Dairyland Laboratories, Inc. at 608-323-2123 or contact us here.